Comparative Adverse Effect of some Common Household Chemicals on Both liver and kidney of Albino rat


  • Fathy, M. Elshaer Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, AlAzhar University, Egypt. Jouf University, College of Science, Biology Department
  • Othman, F. Abdelzaher Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.


Bisphenol A (BPA) - 2-Beutoxyethanol (2-BE) - Kidney- liver- Albino rat


Kidney and liver are target organs playing a major role in excretion and elimination of the body waste metabolites and they are sensitive to action of the toxic agents. Thus the present study was designed to compare and assess hepatic and renal tissues injuries induced by common household chemicals namely Bisphenol A (BPA) and 2-Beutoxyethanol (2-BE) in adult male albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). Oral treatment with sub-lethal dose (200 mg/kg/day) for 15days resulted in different histopathological effects in both liver and kidney of male albino rat(Rattus norvegicus). Fatty change liver, necrotic hepatocytes, congested blood, infiltration of polymorph leukocytes, pyknotic hepatocytes and aggregation of melanomacrophages in the hepatic tissue were observed. While in kidney; shrinkage and atrophy of glomeruli, hypertrophy of glomeruli with glomerular distortion, necrotic renal tubules, stagnation fluid in renal tubules, severe atrophy of renal tubules and some macrophages cells were observed.


Oehlmann, J., Schulte-Oehlmann, U., Kloas, W., Jagnytsch, O., Lutz, I., Kusk, K. O., ... & Tyler, C. R.

(2009). A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philosophical

Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1526), 2047-2062.

Gao, X., Kang, S., Xiong, R., & Chen, M. (2020). Environment-friendly removal methods for endocrine

disrupting chemicals. Sustainability, 12(18), 7615. doi:10.3390/su12187615.

Ahmed, W. M., Moselhy, W. A., & Nabil, T. M. (2015). Bisphenol A toxicity in adult male rats:

hematological, biochemical and histopathological approach. Global veterinaria, 14(2),

-238.Angerer, J.; Ewers, U. and Wilhelm, M. Human biomonitoring: state of the art. International

Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2007, 210, 201-228. doi:


de Boer, J., Fritsche, E., Schoeters, G., & Kimber, I. (2015). The European Long-range Research

Initiative (LRI): A decade of contributions to human health protection, exposure modelling and

environmental integrity. Toxicology, 337, 83-90. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.09.003.

Carson, P. A. (2002). Hazardous chemicals handbook. Elsevier. Hardcover ISBN:

Peretz, J., Vrooman, L., Ricke, W. A., Hunt, P. A., Ehrlich, S., Hauser, R., ... & Flaws, J. A. (2014).

Bisphenol A and reproductive health: update of experimental and human evidence, 2007–2013.

Environmental health perspectives, 122(8), 775-786. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1307728

Cogliano, V. J., Grosse, Y., Baan, R. A., Straif, K., Secretan, M. B., Ghissassi, F. E., & Working Group for

Volume 88. (2005). Meeting report: summary of IARC monographs on formaldehyde,

-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol. Environmental health perspectives, 113(9), 1205-1208.

doi: 10.1289/ehp.7542

Le, H. H., Carlson, E. M., Chua, J. P., & Belcher, S. M. (2008). Bisphenol A is released from

polycarbonate drinking bottles and mimics the neurotoxic actions of estrogen in developing cerebellar

neurons. Toxicology letters, 176(2), 149-156. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2007.11.001

Elshaer, F.M., Khalaf-Allahf, H.M.M., Bkry, S., Tawfiek, Z. and Abu-Shaeir, W.A. Comparative Studies

on the Anatomical Changes Induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) on Some Vertebrate Species. Ph.D. Thesis,

Zool.Dep. Fac.Sci., Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt., 2014, 212 pp.

Richter, C. A., Birnbaum, L. S., Farabollini, F., Newbold, R. R., Rubin, B. S., Talsness, C. E., ... & vom

Saal, F. S. (2007). In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reproductive toxicology,

(2), 199-224. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.06.004

Kang, J. H., Katayama, Y., & Kondo, F. (2006). Biodegradation or metabolism of bisphenol A: from

microorganisms to mammals. Toxicology, 217(2-3), 81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2005.10.001.

Traynor, M. J., Wilkinson, S. C., & Williams, F. M. (2008). Metabolism of butoxyethanol in excised

human skin in vitro. Toxicology letters, 177(3), 151-155. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.01.013.

Hung, P. C., Cheng, S. F., Liou, S. H., & Tsai, S. W. (2011). Biological monitoring of low-level

-butoxyethanol exposure in decal transfer workers in bicycle manufacturing factories. Occupational

and environmental medicine, 68(10), 777-782. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.01.013.


(EGBE)(CAS No. 111-76-2).

Karnam, S. S., Ghosh, R. C., & Mondal, S. (2016). EFFECT OF BISPHENOL-A ON IMMUNE SYSTEM

OF WISTAR RATS. Exploratory Animal and Medical Research, 6(1), 47-52.

Baselt, R. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical

Publications. 2008, pp. 208–210. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e31818de2e2

Omar, A. M. S. (2013). Histopathological and physiological effects of liver and kidney in rats exposed

to cadmium and ethanol. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental, 2(3), 93-106.

WASSN 2021 8 of 8

Ashwood, E. R., Aldrich, J. E., & Tietz, N. W. (1996). Tietz fundamentals of clinical chemistry.


Hassan, Z. K., Elobeid, M. A., Virk, P., Omer, S. A., ElAmin, M., Daghestani, M. H., & AlOlayan, E. M.

(2012). Bisphenol A induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress in rat model. Oxidative medicine

and cellular longevity, 2012.

Roy, S., Kalita, C. J., & Mazumdar, M. (2011). Histopathlogical effects of Bisphenol A on liver of

Heteropneustes Fossilis (Bloch). An international Quarterly Journal of Environmental Sciences the

Ecoscan, 1, 187-190.

Hussein, R. M., & Eid, J. I. (2013). Pathological mechanisms of liver injury caused by oral

administration of bisphenol A. Life Science Journal, 10(1), 663.

Daniela-Saveta, P. O. P. A., Bolfa, P., Bela, K. I. S. S., Vlase, L., Păltinean, R., Anca, P. O. P., ... & Loghin,

F. (2014). Influence of genista tinctoria l or methylparaben on subchronic toxicity of bisphenol a in rats.

Biomedical and environmental sciences, 27(2), 85-96. doi: 10.3967/bes2014.021.

Yamaguchi, P. Histopathological and electron microscopic changes in mice treated with puffer fish

toxin. Journal of Toxicological Science 1996, (1): 1-14. doi: 10.2131/jts.21.supplementi_1.

Metcalfe, C. D. (1998). Toxicopathic responses to organic compounds. Fish Diseases and Disorders:

Non-infectious Disorders, vol. 2.

Korkmaz, A., Ahbab, M. A., Kolankaya, D., & Barlas, N. (2010). Influence of vitamin C on bisphenol A,

nonylphenol and octylphenol induced oxidative damages in liver of male rats. Food and Chemical

Toxicology, 48(10), 2865-2871. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.019.

Camargo, M. M., & Martinez, C. B. (2007). Histopathology of gills, kidney and liver of a Neotropical

fish caged in an urban stream. Neotropical Ichthyology, 5(3), 327-336.

Gengerich, W. H. (1982). Hepatic toxicology of fishes In: Aquatic toxicology. Raven, Prees NY, 55, 106.

Mollendroff, P.G. (1973): Cytology and cell physiology. 3rd ed. Academic Press. New York.

Benjamin, N., Kushwah, A., Sharma, R. K., & Katiyar, A. K. (2006). Histopathological changes in liver,

kidney and muscles of pesticides exposed malnourished and diabetic rats.

Long, E. R., MacDonald, D. D., Smith, S. L., & Calder, F. D. (1995). Incidence of adverse biological

effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental

management, 19(1), 81-97.

Meinelt, T., Krüger, R., Pietrock, M., Osten, R., & Steinberg, C. (1997). Mercury pollution and

macrophage centres in pike (Esox lucius) tissues. Environmental science and Pollution research, 4(1),

-36. doi: 10.1007/BF02986262

Afshar, S., Farshid, A. A., Heidari, R., & Ilkhanipour, M. (2008). Histopathological changes in the liver

and kidney tissues of Wistar albino rat exposed to fenitrothion. Toxicology and industrial health, 24(9),


Akingbemi, B. T., Sottas, C. M., Koulova, A. I., Klinefelter, G. R., & Hardy, M. P. (2004). Inhibition of

testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol A is associated with reduced pituitary

luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat Leydig

cells. Endocrinology, 145(2), 592-603. doi: 10.1210/en.2003-1174.

Sangai, N. P., Verma, R. J., & Trivedi, M. H. (2014). Testing the efficacy of quercetin in mitigating

bisphenol A toxicity in liver and kidney of mice. Toxicology and industrial health, 30(7), 581-597.

Takashima, F., & Hibiya, T. (1995). An atlas of fish histology: normal and pathological features.

Saenphet, S., Thaworn, W., & Saenphet, K. (2009). Histopathological alterations of the gills, liver and

kidneys in Anabas testudineus (Bloch) fish living in an unused lignite mine, li district, Lamphun

province, Thailand. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 40(5), 1121.

Humanson, G. L. (1979). Animal tissue techniques (No. QM 556. H85 1979).




How to Cite

Elshaer, F. M., & Abdelzaher, O. F. . (2021). Comparative Adverse Effect of some Common Household Chemicals on Both liver and kidney of Albino rat. WAS Science Nature (WASSN) ISSN: 2766-7715, 4(1). Retrieved from



Biology & Life Sciences